String methods

You can find more info about the particular regex syntax used in the *_regex methods on this link.


Return the same string in all uppercase characters.

string.to_uppercase() => String

// example
do val = "Where is Brian?"
do val.to_uppercase() // "WHERE IS BRIAN?"


Return the same string in all lowercase characters.

string.to_lowercase() => String

// example
do val = "Where is Brian?"
do val.to_lowercase() // "where is brian?"


Return the same string with the first letter in uppercase. The rest of the string remains unchanged.

string.capitalize() => String

// example
do val = "my name is John"
do val.capitalize() // "My name is John"

.trim(), .trim_left(), .trim_right()

Returns a new string with both leading and trailing whitespace removed. .trim_left() and .trim_right() only trim the leading and trainling whitespace respectively.

do text = "   Where is Brian?   "
do new_text = text.trim()
say new_text // "Where is Brian?"

do new_text = text.trim_left()
say new_text // "Where is Brian?   "

do new_text = text.trim_right()
say new_text // "   Where is Brian?"


Return the length of the target string.

string.length() => Integer

// example
do val = "Where is Brian?"
do val.length() // 15

.contains(String), .contains_regex(String)

Return whether the string contains another string or expression.

haystack.contains(needle) => Boolean
haystack.contains_regex(needle) => Boolean

// example
do val = "Where is Brian?"
// does it contain any "r"?
do val.contains("r") // true
// does it contain the word "where"?
do val.contains("where") // false => no, because it is case sensitive
// does it contain any number?
do val.contains_regex("[0-9]") // true

.replace(), .replace_all(), .replace_regex()

Replace the first, all or any occurrence matching the predicate:

say "toto".replace("o", "a") // "tato" the first o char is replaced
say "toto".replace_all("o", "a") // "tata" all o chars are replaced
say "toto".replace_regex("[to]", "a") // "aaaa" all chars that are t or o are replaced

.starts_with(String), .starts_with_regex(String)

Return whether a string starts with another string or expression.

haystack.starts_with(needle) => Boolean
haystack.starts_with_regex(needle) => Boolean

// example
do val = "Where is Brian?"
// does it start with "r"?
do val.starts_with("r") // false
// does it start with any uppercase letter?
do val.starts_with_regex("[A-Z]") // true

.ends_with(String), .ends_with_regex(String)

Return whether a string ends with another string or expression.

haystack.ends_with(needle) => Boolean
haystack.ends_with_regex(needle) => Boolean

// example
do val = "Where is Brian?"
// does it end with "r"?
do val.ends_with("r") // false
// does it end with any uppercase letter?
do val.ends_with_regex("[A-Z]") // false

.match(String), .match_regex(String)

Return all the matches of the string or expression in the target string, or Null if none are found.

haystack.match(needle) => Array[String]
haystack.match_regex(needle) => Array[String]

// example
do val = "Where is Brian?"
// does it match with "r"?
do val.match("r") // ["r", "r"] => yes, twice!
// does it match with any uppercase letter?
do val.match_regex("[A-Z]") // ["W", "B"] => yes, and these are the letters!

About _regex methods:

The \ (backslash) character has a special meaning. For technical reasons, in all strings, it must be properly escaped, by convention by adding another \ in front of itself, to avoid being interpreted as a special character. For example, if you mean to write the exact string "\n" you must in fact write \\n, otherwise \n will be interpreted as a line break.

This Python documentation explains why it especially matters in Regex syntax to escape backslashes:

We follow this nomenclature for CSML Regex handling, so a single Regex backslash must be written as a "\\" string, and an escaped backslash (that behaves as a literal "\" string character) must in fact be escaped twice, once for being in a string, and once for being in a Regex: you have to write "\\\\" to result in the Regex syntax \\which in turn matches the literal "\" string.

In a future release of CSML we might introduce a "raw string" method to bypass this limitation.

.is_number(), .is_int(), .is_float()

Return whether the given string represents a numerical value, an int, a float.

string.is_number() => Boolean

// example
do val = "Where is Brian?"
do val.is_number() // false

do val = "42"
do val.is_number() // true
do val.is_int() // true
do val.is_float() // false


Split a string by a given separator and return an array containing all elements in order. The separator can be a single or multiple characters. If the separator can not be found in the string, the returned array will only contain the original string.

string.split(String) => Array[String]

// example
do val = "this is a long string"
do val.split(" ") // ["this", "is", "a", "long", "string"]
do val.split("is") // ["th", " ", " a long string"]
do val.split("camembert") // ["this is a long string"]

.slice(start, end) => String

Cut a string between the start and end characters. Some rules apply:

  • If end is not specified, all the characters after start are returned.

  • When specified, end must be ≥ start.

  • If any of the parameters is < 0, the count is made from the end of the string.

say "abcdefghijklmnop".slice(2, 4) // "cd"
say "abcdefghijklmnop".slice(7) // "hijklmnop"
say "abcdefghijklmnop".slice(-4) // "mnop"
say "abcdefghijklmnop".slice(-4, 14) // "mn"

say "abcdefghijklmnop".slice(-4, 3) // Error
say "abcdefghijklmnop".slice(2, 1) // Error

.to_int(), .to_float() => Integer, Float

Convert a string representing a number to a value cast as an integer or float:

do val = "1.2345".to_int() // 1
do val = "1.2345".to_float() // 1.2345

do val = "not a number".to_int() // error

.to_yml(), .to_json()

Convert yaml to json and back

do json = "some:\n  yaml: 1".to_json()
say "{{json}}" // {"some":{"yaml":1}}

do yml = json.to_yaml()
say "{{yml}}" // some:\n  yaml: 1

.encode_uri(), .encode_uri_component(), .decode_uri(), .decode_uri_component()

Encode and decode URI/URIComponent (see

say "шеллы".encode_uri()
say "шеллы".encode_uri_component()

say "".decode_uri()
say "".decode_uri_component()

.encode_html_entities(), .decode_html_entities()

Encode and decode HTML entities

debug "42 < 100".encode_html_entities()
debug "42 &lt; 100".decode_html_entities()

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